Termez Archaeological Museum
General information about the Archaeological Museum of Termez
In Termez on At-Termezi Avenue there is a unique archaeological museum with priceless historical treasures. The Termez Archaeological Museum was built in October 2001, and it began to receive its first visitors from April 2002. The opening of the Termez Museum of Archeology was solemnly timed to the 2500th anniversary of the city.
More than 27 thousand priceless historical exhibits can be seen by visitors. Among them one can find many ancient paintings, sculptures, ancient coins and household items. The scientific and educational department of 15 people organizes fascinating excursions, which will familiarize guests with many treasures of history.
The uniqueness of the Surkhandarya regional Archaeological Museum in the city of Termez is not only in the presented exhibits, but also in the architectural solution of the building itself. At the entrance visitors enter the main entrance hall, from which they can go to nine other halls. The main hall instantly shakes the imagination represented by statues, high khums, sculptures and a stone pool. All these items of ancient history belong to different epochs, but they are united by a high level of mastery of performance. The entrance hall also contains a map of the relief of the Surkhandarya river basin, which shows the locations of the main architectural monuments.
In nine theme rooms visitors can get acquainted with the heritage of different historical eras.
Nine rooms - nine so-called historical epochs
The first hall of the Archaeological Museum of Termez contains valuable archaeological exhibits of the Stone Age, which prove the presence of ancient people in the Surkhan oasis. For example, the found objects of everyday life of primitive people in the cave Teshiktash became of great importance in world archeology. It was an ancient site of Neanderthals where archeological expeditions managed to find a lot of stone blades, scrapers and cutters that were used for hunting and processing hides. Also, a huge number of animal bones was discovered here. It allows one to draw the conclusion that mainly hunters lived here. Traces of primitive people were also found by archaeologists in the grottoes of Kugitang and Baysuntau. Beginning with the later period of the Mesolithic, the inhabitants of the Surkhan oasis managed to invent a bow with arrows, more perfect tools made of stone, and also they learned how to domesticate animals.
In the second room there are exhibits that represent the life of the inhabitants of the Surkhan oasis in the Bronze Age. Visitors of the Termez Archaeological Museum can see tools made of bronze, circles of potters, copper mirrors, statuettes, necklaces and vessels of that era. In this period, people began to separate the craft from traditional farming, and gradually began to establish a system of channels for artificial irrigation. One of the early monuments of this period is the Sapallitepa, located on the shore of the Ulanbulaksai. In this area, the settlement of Jarkutan was also located. The total area of it was more than 100 hectares. It is noteworthy that the ruins of the very first temple of fire worshipers were found on the territory of this settlement.
In the third hall the visitors will be able to appreciate the culture of the times of ancient Bactria. During this period, farmers and artisans already actively used tools for labor from iron. On the territory of the Surkhan oasis, such cities as Djandavlat-tepa, Haitbad and Kyzyl-tepa arose. All these cities were built on a similar principle, which provided a fortified citadel for the inhabitants and a ruler, as well as an inner city for potters and artisans. The excellent examples of their art were arrowheads with three blades, stone or iron sickles in the form of a crescent moon. Archaeologists could not find the bulk of the architectural monuments of those times, since they were almost completely destroyed during the military campaigns of Alexander the Great.
The fourth hall of the Termez Archaeological Museum represents the culture of Bactria of a later period. By this period are the years since the reign of Alexander of Macedon before the emergence of the Kushan state. The coins, sculptures and objects of painting found by archeologists testify to the high impact of the Hellenistic and Indian culture on all aspects of the activities of the inhabitants of the Surkhan oasis.
The visitors can appreciate the craftsmanship of artisans of that time through the ivory and marble statuettes presented in the museum, as well as various items made of stone and glass. During that period, an ancient settlement called Old Termez was being formed. It became the center of the craft of the whole region.
The fifth hall of the Termez Archeological Museum is reserved for the expositions that relate to the Kushan era. During that period, East Turkistan, together with the lands of Northern India, was part of the new state, which naturally affected the way of life and culture of the Bactrians. The development of religion was active; and countless figurines-idols found by archaeological expeditions are evidenced by it.
In the sixth hall of the Termez Museum of Archeology the visitors can get acquainted with the culture of the Northern Tokharistan of the early Middle Ages. In those days, the cities consisted of a citadel and shakhristan. The architecture of that time is distinguished by rather complex motifs with graceful domes and arches. The material for the construction was mainly raw brick. The main function of the cities was the religious foundation, as evidenced by the numerous sanctuaries and temples. Vessels of glass, bottles for antimony, mugs with double handles and other religious objects were found there.
In the seventh hall the medieval Tokharistan is represented. It is famous for the high rise of the craft. In addition to the usual citadels and shakhristan, the handicraft part called "rabada" was then located in the cities. It represented the whole blocks of potters, glass blowers, blacksmiths and metalworkers. The architecture of buildings became even more complex; new styles with the use of burnt bricks appeared. An excellent example of the progress of that time was an invaluable collection of copper products, which archaeologists discovered during the excavation of Budrach. Visitors of the Archaeological Museum of Termez with their own eyes can see all these household items, the total weight of which reaches 300 kilograms.
In the eighth hall the applied art of the Temurids’ epoch is presented. Numerous exhibits give a clear idea of the life of Termez and Chaganian in those days. In this room you can see the armor of soldiers of that era, a lot of jugs, lamps, dishes, chess and fragments of architecture that could survive to this day almost in their original form.
Expositions from the objects of the Surkhan oasis of the Khanate period are presented in the ninth hall of the Archaeological Museum of Termez. Here are the items from the major craft centers of the XVI — XX centuries of Baysun, Sheribad and Denau. They are various tools, metal weapons, jewelry, and clay vessels. Other exhibits give an idea of Termez, which at that time was part of the Bukhara Emirate.
Probably, it would be a mistake not to visit the Termez Archeological Museum in Termez. Peopletravel Company strongly advises to visit this museum. The management of Peopletravel guarantees support during all the tours round Uzbekistan. Have a nice trip!