Tashkent Soviet architecture
On the web-site of Peopletravel there are lots of notes and photo reviews about Tashkent. But all these materials concern precisely the capital of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan. In this article you will get acquainted with some examples of Tashkent pre-Russian and pre-Soviet buildings.
Tashkent is a very ancient history. The large Central Asian city, in different periods of its existence, belonged to many states. Just before the rule of the Russian Empire, it was a separate city-state. After joining the Russian Empire, Tashkent became the center of Russian influence throughout Central Asia and the headquarters of the famous and formidable General Kaufman.
And then Tashkent became the capital of the Uzbek SSR. The ancient city intensively began to acquire Soviet features; it began to develop industry, education, social service. Tashkent has always been a very big city with fine architecture. In the Tsarist period, this statement was fixed officially.
During the Great Patriotic War, lots of manufacturing departments and plants were evacuated here from the European territory of Russia, moreover, together with workers and specialists, which further developed the industrial potential of Tashkent. And then in 1966, a terrible earthquake occurred in Tashkent. It practically destroyed the city. After that, Tashkent was rebuilt taking into account all possible disasters: lined avenues and high-rise buildings located far from each other.
Over the years, some of the Tashkent pre-Soviet buildings and monuments have been preserved, some - has not, something has changed its purpose, but something has also changed its appearance.
List of Tashkent pre-Soviet buildings
Below is a list of some Tashkent surviving buildings from the Soviet period that deserve attention. On the background of modern buildings, they stand out markedly. And what is the most interesting, they are safely preserved in almost perfect condition.
Military Assembly of 1885
Initially, the edifice was one-storeyed, later the second floor was completed, and at the beginning of the 20th century, the Party House and the Red Army House were located here first. And only in 1924 the building became known as the District Officer House. The building itself has changed a lot since it was built, but the overall pre-Soviet style has been preserved. Now it is transferred to the balance sheet of the Law Institute.
Kaplan Pharmacy of 1906
Built 106 years ago by the project of the architect G.M. Svarichevsky, this pre-Soviet Tashkent building originally belonged to the famous pharmacist I.I. Krause, and only after his death the building was sold to Kaplan. In Soviet times, when the third floor and the additional building were completed, the University was located here. Today it is the Bank.
Mariinsk Women's College of 1910
The building was built by the same G.M. Svarichevsky, especially for the women's school, which previously was located in a rented house. Funds for the construction were released by the treasury. Now here is the Embassy of France.
The 2nd female gymnasium (1912-1913)
The first women's gymnasium was located on the central square close to the men's gymnasium and was constructed according to the project of the architect E.Dubrovin. The second gymnasium was erected a little further and was later given to the aviation technical school. Now it is the University of Westminster.
Palace of Prince Romanov (1889-1891)
The palace was built by famous architect Alexei Leontyevich Benoit. This Tashkent architectural building before the Soviet period was the residence of Grand Duke Nicholay Konstantinovich Romanov. The building is made of burnt bricks, so even in the summer it is cool in it enough. In 1917, the Museum of Art of Tashkent was established here. Now it is the House of Receptions of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (1912-2000)
Construction of the church was started in 1912, and was supposed to be completed before 1920, but because of the military coup in 1917, funding ceased. In Soviet times, it was decided by Tashkent administration not to finish building, and at first it was used as a warehouse or a hostel. For 80 years, the building has undergone even greater devastation. In 1993, the church was given to the Catholic parish of Tashkent, after which it was overhauled and consecrated by the archbishop.
Let’s note the Tashkent buildings in the style of Soviet Modernism.
The buildings of the Soviet architectural modernism have quite specific properties that easily distinguish it from classicism. This generic term is used to unify constructivism, functionalism and rationalism. Modernism is characterized by a break with the preceding experience of artistic creativity and the desire to establish new beginnings in architecture.
We would also like to talk about the Tashkent mosaic. Mosaics - one of the ways to explore the history of the city of Tashkent with the help of visual perception.
Technically, the Tashkent mosaic of Soviet times is much closer to the ancient. Crafty ornaments, colorful pieces of smalt, patterns of ceramic tiles, marble and semiprecious minerals - the naked eye can see that behind each panel there are months of hard work of many people.
In general, we can say that the architecture of Tashkent is very diverse, as it was said earlier, it appeared at different times. This is an absolute plus of the city, because beauty is in diversity.
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