In the first centuries AD in the Central Asia there was not a city in our concept of the word. Among individual ancestral estates stood fortified manor founders and leaders, sometimes reaching a significant size. Ancient "city" as the time of Alexander the Great Samarkand, Bukhara, and others, were originally type a small fortress. Separate lock-estate also had powerful defensive walls and towers, Architecture wore austere fortress character.
By 6-7 AD centuries, when the boundaries of individual states significantly enhanced and strengthened centralized power, began to develop handicraft industry and international trade, the rise of cities, the finalization of which is already in the Middle Ages, after the Arab conquest.
The ancient period of Central Asia history. History of Shahrisabz
History of such Central Asian city as Shahrisabz in 4-8 centuries AD connected to the state of the ancient Sassanid Iran, which entered Merveky oasis with its capital in ancient Merv. In Sogdiana and Khorezm exist independently of the state, which were subject to the V century Ephtalites.
Found in excavations in Central Asia, the materials of culture and art indicate the existence of the ancient period architecture, sculpture, painting and a variety of crafts, which stood at a high level for that time of artistic skill. Interesting reliefs decorated vessels of precious metals by craftsmen greek-bakriya kingdoms varied sculptures - powerful figures and small plastic clay, highly artistic remnants of colorful murals in Palace. Visual arts of the ancient Central Asia period are full of images of animals and people, the image of Islam, which subsequently banned. This art was closely connected with ancient folk notions of life and nature, imbued with the content of myths and legends.
Distinctive in style, formed on the basis of distinctive local traditions and monuments of the ancient art of Central Asia at the same time talking about the lively cultural ties with major civilizations of the time: the Greek, Roman, Iranian, Indian and Chinese.
The medieval period of the Shahrizabs history
The beginning of the Middle Ages, the history of Shahrisabz faced the formation and development of feudal social relations in Central Asia, as in other countries of the East, has coincided with the spread of Islam after the Arab invasion in the VIII century AD. Joining the Arab Caliphate, Central Asia soon began to play a prominent role in the history of the Muslim East. In the IX century Bukhara became the capital of an independent state in fact, in which prevailed Sogdian Samanid dynasty IX-X century - a bright page of medieval history of Central Asia. In Bukhara, literature and science flourished. It started its activities a famous scientist and philosopher Ibn Sina, known in Europe as Avicenna science.
Arab conquest of Central Asia accompanied by spreading of religion, new ideology, new forms of public and private life of the new rules.
In the development of Islamic culture, science, art and architecture, which played an important role in the history of mankind, the participation of the peoples of Central Asia are prominent.
The specifics of medieval architecture evolved over centuries opening Shahrisabz history, and only in the X-XI centuries can note the general stylistic features and techniques, and in Cordoba, and in Kashgar, and Central Asia. In the first stages in the construction of religious buildings, most mosques used local traditional building forms.
Shahrizabs. Oriental Art and Culture
In the culture and art of the Samanid era still strong were ancient traditions. This has been clearly reflected in the architecture. Ornamental and decorative style of medieval Islam, later, becomes the dominant value in the art of Central Asia.
As in other Muslim countries at the time, in Central Asia, the rise of cities, many of which have become major trade and industrial centers. Since the XI century in the monumental architecture of Central Asia is spreading rectangular portal with deep lancet niche (peshtak), which, along with the domes, is almost a necessary component in the architecture of each of the major buildings and always stands out spectacularly low and simple in appearance of residential buildings.
At the beginning of the XIII century, Mongol invasion causes a terrible blow to political and cultural life in Central Asia.
The last decades of the century XIV and XV century, are particularly significant in the history of Shahrisabz. The famous conqueror Timur, who was born in this city, made his new capital - Samarkand. Maurya forces of Timur made victorious campaigns in various countries, reached the west to Asia Minor in the east - to India. Ambitious Timur wanted to make his capital as the best city in the world. From the conquered lands he brought to Samarkand outstanding artists and craftsmen. Magnificent buildings since Timur still suggest grandiose construction projects that five centuries ago, made in Samarkand and other cities.
Shahrisabz history. The modern city
This is a growing city with great prospects and plans and huge potential. Beautiful sunny city in recent years has become even more attractive: were built new modern buildings, entertainment and shopping centers. Shahrisabz is surrounded by green gardens, parks and gardens that making the city of Tamerlan bewitching oasis of Uzbekistan.
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