Khudayar-Khan Fortress in Kokand
Main monument of the Kokand
Each khanates of the Turan had its own grand citadel. One of these monuments is a Citadel (Urda) that was constructed by the order of last Kokand ruler Khudayarkhan in 1872.
According to the historical sources, this citadel of Khudayarkhan (1831-1882) was built on the ruins of the citadel of Muhammad Ali Khan. Best masters of the Kokand and Bukhara were invited for the construction of the fortress. In accordance of the project architect Mir Ubaydallah the building was erected on the hill above the high brick foundation. Facing and decorations were executed by the most well-known masters and calligraphers of those times.
Originally a fortress included more than 100 different rooms, outdoor-indoor courts and a mosque. The upper part of the fortress stands out against the bright sky. Colorful glazed bricks are presented in the form of patterned, ribbon encircling the conical body of the main buildings of the citadel in a circle in a few places. In simple and specific forms these buildings can be seen erecting new tricks structures intervening in the architecture of Kokand.
Typical architecture of the city is reflected in the newly constructed buildings. Masters along with the use of ancient techniques decorated new constructions of modern Kokand with ancient bricklaying, arches and ceilings that was used several centuries ago. That creates unique picture of the Kokand attracting moe and more guests to the city.
Each piece had a gate built on the same axis with a view to the east. During the colonization significant part of the building was destroyed (the outer court premises harem). Currently here preserved an exterior facade, hall with a dome and terrace (iwan) with 19 rooms.
In 1925, the castle was turned into a museum that keeps various antiques from all over the Ferghana Valley.