Heritage of Buddhist culture and architecture
Buddhist complex Airtam is situated in Khoresm region and dated back to the 4th century BC.
The study of Buddhist monuments of Central Asia began from excavations in Airtam. And according to six Bactrian inscriptions King Kanishka had implemented large construction works of Buddhist temple in particular restored and decorated the complex.
Northern Bactria Buddhist texts of the Kushan period have a great importance for the history of Buddhism. And it is possible that this temple was the first Buddhist building in Northern Bactria among the earliest true suburban Buddhist sanctuary at Dalverzintepa.
According to the researchers, there are four main stages of the history of Buddhism in the south of our country. The first century BC is considered as a stage of transmitting the people of Bactria to the Buddhist doctrine. In the first century AD began dissemination of Buddhist structures, as well as construction of the first Buddhist monuments in Airtam, in the old Termez and Dalverzintepa.
The first half of the II century AD dated back to the reign of Kanishka is considered as rise and strong assertion of Buddhism in the towns and cities of Bactria.
However, the Buddhist faith had lost its position in the religious life because of the conquest of the Arabs in the first half of the VIII BC, and with arrival to Central Asia a new religion - Islam.
In the south of Uzbekistan, in Surkhandarya archaeologists investigated many Buddhist monuments, among which there are unique pieces of Buddhist art - murals, plaster, clay sculptures and religious items.