"... gidjak - hiding from noisy disputes, likes to play the most soulful music"
The oldest bow instrument that appeared on Uzbek land was gidjak.
Gidjak or gijjak (gijak) is a stringed bow musical instrument of the Uzbeks, as well as other peoples of Central Asia. It is also a "close relative" of the Persian kemanchi. The body of the instrument is spherical, covered with leather. It is made of pumpkin, large walnut, wood or other materials. The number of strings of gidjak is not constant, most often - four.
When playing Uzbek gidjak it is kept in an upright position, resting with a "foot" on the floor or knee. The sound is elicited with a short bow with a freely suspended string of horse hair, the tension of which is regulated by the fingers (nowadays a violin bow is often used). Songs and dances, instrumental pieces and separate parts from makoms are performed on gidjaks. Uzbek gidjak is used solo and in ensembles with other folk instruments.
Modern gidjak, which currently plays professionals, was adopted in the 50's of the twentieth century.
Thanks to the richest expressive and technical capabilities, Uzbek gijjak today is one of the leading instruments of the orchestra, where it performs mostly a melodic role, and often participates in accompaniment and various kinds of echoes. There are different types of gidjak: gidjak-alto, gidjak bass, gidjak contrabass and gidjak prima.
A remarkable performer on gidjak was a well-known Uzbek musician and composer, a collector of musical folklore, who created many orchestral works based on folk melodies Tukhtasyn Jalilov. It is impossible without gidjak to present the work of the outstanding musician Yunus Rajabi - singer and performer, collector and researcher of Uzbek musical folklore, the author of the collection "Uzbek folk music" in five and six volumes.
History of Uzbek musical instrument gijjak
Valuable information about the instrument is contained in the Persian musical treatise of the XIV century "Kanz al-Tukhaf" - "The Gift of Treasures". It has drawings. One depicts a gidjak, and the other - a rubab. The body of gidjak in the shape of the hemisphere is covered with leather. The long neck of gidjak is made of almond, walnut or even the strongest ebony. Both strings - zir and hadd - pass through the stand and are touched by a bow of horsehair (kamon). In the Maraga treatise, the same data on the technology of making a gijjak is supplemented by an indication that its body is also made of coconut shell and that the instrument sounds better if its strings are silk. They are usually configured in a quart, but other settings are possible. In addition to the main two strings, gidjak also has seven resonating strings.
Gidjak for miniatures of the XIV-XV centuries, especially for illustrations of "Shahname", is not typical. Nevertheless, there is every reason to assert that gidjak in the 15th century was a well-known instrument. One of the proofs is the miniature of the first half of the 15th century, belonging to the Herat or perhaps Samarkand art school. It depicts Uzbek gidjak with a body in the form of a hemisphere. In the hand of a woman there is a bow consisting of a short shaft and a strand of hair attached to it. The number of strings is indistinguishable, but judging by other images of this time, it can be assumed that there were two of them.
Modern Uzbek gijjak is the highest in terms of the sound volume of the instrument of the bow group. When you play it, use the four fingers of your left hand. The fingering of gidjak is like the fingering of a violin. The expressive capabilities of gidjak are exceptionally rich and varied. It is one of the most mobile instruments of the orchestra. It is suitable for performing the most diverse in terms of texture and tempo of passages. Gijjak, Uzbek music instrument, has a peculiar timbre of sound: the first string is shiny and light, the second and especially the third one is soft and tender, the bass (the fourth string) is deaf; its sound is not strong enough.
Note that the presented instrument can be heard live. During the tour of Uzbekistan famous performers and dance groups will please fans of the beautiful by their mastery of playing the Uzbek gidjak. Today this instrument, which has a thousand-year history, still sounds charming, like a thousand years ago.