Literature and art of Uzbekistan is called one of the bright and wonderful pages of the history of the world artistic culture. Along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome, India and China, Central Asia laid the foundations of human civilization. The emergence of a cultural phenomenon in Uzbekistan is mainly due to its geographical location in the Central Asian Mesopotamia, where agricultural centers have been formed since ancient times.
Uzbek literature history
The most ancient Uzbek oral literary works are over 200 epic poems, many legends, epic songs performed by folk poets - bakhshi. Heroes of folklore struggle with hostile forces - evil spirits, dragons. The oldest cycle of epic poems Ker-ogly and the poem Alpamysh were written around the 10th century. Alpamysh went in the folklore of all the peoples of Central Asia. It talks about the courage of folk heroes, courage and hatred of enemies; it contains many witty aphorisms, vivid metaphors, colorful descriptions. Another popular work from the cycle Ker-ogly is a poem about the transforming power of love of Ravshan-Hon. Many times later it was processed by folk poets. The satirical novels of Nasreddin Afandi, in which the khans and bais are derided, are popular. In the oral Uzbek literature, people of different nationalities - Chinese, Iranian, Turkmen, Negro, etc., female images are devoid of sentimentality.
In the XI century, many works are created, based on religious norms of Islamic morality. These are the instructive poems "Kugadau Bilig" ("Knowledge of Grace" or "Science of Happiness") by Yusuf Khas Hadjib Balasaguni, the poem "Khibat al-Khakaik" ("Gift of Truths") by Ahmad Yugnaki.
Classical literature in the language of Farsi played a huge role in the development of Uzbek written literature. Such monuments are of special cultural and scientific interest for all Turkic-speaking peoples, as it is possible to include Islamic didactic works created at a later time based on ethical norms, for example, "Dictionary of Turkic dialects" compiled by Makhmud al-Kashgari.
Fiction literature reached the flourishing in the historical epoch of Amir Temur and the Temurids. Its popularity is justified by the fact that the works acquire a more secular character, freed from excessive religiousness.
The study of the origins of the development of oral (folklore) and written literature in Uzbekistan convincingly attests to the intensive and dynamic interaction of the cultures of settled and nomadic peoples inhabiting this fertile territory. First of all, this applies to modern Afghanistan, the northern territories of which were part of the large Uzbek (Central Asian) state formations that were associated with the heyday of the genius of Alisher Navoi. He is considered the classic of Uzbek literature and the pioneer of the Uzbek language.
The last of the Timurid dynasty, Zakhiriddin Mukhammad Babur - was also famous as a bright poet of his time. His epic poem "Baburname" is a masterpiece of Uzbek literature, an estimable literal monument of that time.
Literary centers appeared in the 17th - 18th centuries. Most of the writers who took part in their activities, graduated from local madrassahs and, according to tradition, wrote in two languages - Uzbek and Tajik. At this time in Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand anthologies of poems of local poets appeared, which testified to a new upsurge of Uzbek literature. For example, during the rule of Muhammad Rahimkhan (1885-1910), a literary center appeared in Khorezm at the palace, which published poems of local authors collected by Tabibi in a special anthology of poetry. Naturally, in the works of court poets, the khan and his officials were song.
However, in addition to court poets and mystic poets, there was a place in Uzbek literature for people, democratically minded progressive writers and poets. In their sketchy prose and poetic works, they boldly exposed the vices of their time, hypocrisy, insidious tricks of khans and beks. Such writers, for the most part, lived in poverty and were persecuted. One of such courageous defenders of the people and opponents of his oppressors during the reign of Subkhan-kulikhan (1680-1702) was the brave Turdi (Farogi).
Among the democratically minded writers and poets, known for their profound and substantial works, a special place was occupied by Babarakhim Mashrab (1654-1711). Living in poverty and wandering, this great man in his satirical lines mercilessly ridiculed the oppressors of the people - the feudal lords, the beks and their lackeys. Mahmud and Gulkhani also painted in their works a true picture of the plight of the broad masses of working people and boldly exposed injustice and violence.
One of the prior representatives of Uzbek literature during the khan’s period was the excellent poet, translator and historian Muhammad Riza Ogakhi (1809-1874), known for his democratic ideas and progressive views. His humanism and patriotism were clearly manifested in the depiction of a merciless satirical pen of a true picture of the situation of the working people and exposing the injustice of the ruling circles.
Uzbek literature of the XVIII-XIX centuries was mostly lyrical, and was devoted to a love topic. During this period Nadira, Uvaysi, Mashrab, Khorezmi and many others created.
After the seizure of Turkestan by the Russian Empire, a new modern stage of Uzbek literature began. Its bright representatives were the poet Mukimi and the writer, poet and satirist Furkat. At the beginning of the 20th century there were such talents as Hamza Khakimzadeh Niyazi, Sadriddin Aini, Abdullah Kadiri and the philosopher Fitrat. Their literary traditions were continued by Oibek, Gafur Gulyam, Abdullah Kakhhar, Khamid Alimdjan, Uigun and others.
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