Among the remarkable traditions with which Uzbek art is rich, a special place is occupied by the artistic design of fabrics. This branch of traditional art originated in antiquity and already in the period of antiquity and the early Middle Ages acquired a developed character.
Uzbek suzanne today is a visiting card of our republic. After all, as soon as the conversation begins about suzane and embroidery, everyone immediately says - Uzbekistan! And it is possible.
Uzbekistan is famous for its suzani: decorative silk embroideries, striking imagination with bright colors and a variety of exquisite patterns.
Suzanne or suzani (from Persian - "sewn with a needle") – a decorative panel, embroidered with silk or cotton threads.
It is believed that Uzbek needlework originated in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but some experts believe that it was invented before the 18th century.
In the 15th century, the ambassador of Castile, Rui de Clavijo Gonzalez, who visited Tamerlane, compiled detailed descriptions of the embroideries, which were probably the predecessors of Uzbek suzani.
Uzbek suzani textiles traditionally were made by brides as part of their dowry. By tradition, Uzbek suzani pillows, bedspread, rugs and wall hangings are created by women's hands. The methods of sewing and the ornament of embroidery were transferred from mother to daughter. In each family the decorative embroidery was created. The execution of suzani, as a rule, took one or two years of effort of the skilled workers. Dowry for the girls was prepared when they were still young. Mother and her relatives embroidered beautiful clothes for the bride. Since ancient times, Uzbekistan suzani embroidery has always been present in every house. They decorated the walls, and served as an amulet.
Today in Uzbekistan, as before, suzani is embroidered, but not only by brides, but also many female and male masters.
Popular Uzbek suzani motifs are sun and moon, flowers (especially tulips, carnations, irises), leaves, vines, fruits (especially garnets), sometimes - fish and poultry. When creating syuzane, various techniques of needle embroidery and crochet embroidery are used.
There are various Uzbek suzani schools: Nurata, Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgut, Shakhrisabz, Tashkent and Fergana. Each of the schools is distinguished for its sewing features and original colors.
Infinite love of nature is reflected in the expression in embroideries of Bukhara's seamstresses. Bukhara suzane of the XIX century differs in the richness of floral motifs that convey the unaffected beauty of the surrounding nature. They are images of trees, flowering bushes, various colors: carnations, tulips, peonies, chrysanthemums, etc.
The most common in Nurata is a composition with an eight-pointed star in the center and four large bouquets in the corners. Another type of ornamentation is a rhomboid mesh formed by jagged leaves. Its cells are filled with branches with flowers, rosettes, figures of birds and animals. There are Uzbek embroideries, in which individual suzani floral motifs are staggered against the background of the fabric. The combination of tones in individual motifs is distinguished by great refinement: in one flower petals are yellow and golden, in the other - blue, pink and cream. On a branch near the light-turquoise leaves blue flowers grow. The art of Nurata embroidery was practically lost by the middle of the 20th century, and only nowadays masters have revived the traditions of their ancestors.
Samarkand needlework (Uzbekistan) originates from the art of ancient Sogdiana. Samarkand products have larger and laconic details of the figure. In this case, the clarity of the patterns is important. The main motif is a round rosette of crimson tones, surrounded by a deciduous ring.
An unforgettable impression is made by embroidery from the ancient city of Urgut. This is the Uzbek suzani fabric, embroidered with seam "Bosma" on white cotton cloth, less often on raspberry or yellow silk. Blue, yellow stylized patterns in the form of flowers symbolize the sun. Sometimes in the ornaments of Uzbek suzani there are motifs of various household items, like teapots and bowls. Volumetric, dense embroidery on suzane from Urgut almost entirely covers the surface of the product.
A large medallion is often placed on the Shakhrisabz articles, and in the corners there are quarters of the same medallions. Medallions have a geometric ornament and a rich multicolor coloring. The Uzbek handmade embroidered suzani textiles in Shakhrisabz, executed on a colored background by a tambour seam are interesting and expressive.
The needlework of Tashkent masters is distinguished by a very peculiar style. Here are two types of embroideries - palyak and gulkurpa.
The products of the Fergana school are usually executed on dark green or purple silk or satin and are distinguished by a light pattern.
One of the ways to create the Uzbek suzani product:
1. On order for the master homespun unpainted silk and silk threads of a certain torsion and a certain thickness (this is an important point on which depends how to lay the thread in the process of embroidery) are made.
The thread for the fabric and for embroidery is made completely by hand - from uncoiling the silk cocoons to twisting into the finished thread.
2. Having a design by color, the master himself colors the fabric and threads in the necessary colors.
For the dyeing of the cloth, the pomegranate peel is most often used. Its coloring gives the silk shades from light beige to burgundy, as well as a certain gloss and softness to the material itself. Also the master uses mineral dyes, mainly for bright orange, pink colors.
The thread is also colored with both natural and mineral dyes. The most laborious process of dyeing the yarn is the melange technique (a smooth transition from light to dark shade), but the flowers in patterns embroidered with a melange thread look very gentle, like the living ones.
3. Having applied a pattern to the finished fabric, the master begin to embroider.
For example, embroidery of pillow cases takes from 3 to 5 days, depending on the urgency of the work.
The embroideress works sitting (most often on the kurpachea - an Uzbek mattress that lies on the floor) above the wooden frame on the low legs, on which the fabric with the motif of embroidery is stretched.
4. When the Uzbek handmade embroidery suzani textile is ready, the master gives it to the seamstress, who, depending on the purpose of the product (pillowcase, panel, jacket, carpet), cuts the necessary details and, with her sewing skill shapes the new creation.
5. To ensure that the finished product does not shed during use and washing in the future, the master treats it with an infusion of pomegranate peel (the infusion is on the water). It fixes the color of the threads, and also gives shine and softness to the very embroidery on the product.
Hand embroidery is a whole branch on the tree of Uzbek folk art. Ancient mythological symbols of suzane ornaments, the boundless imagination of the craftsmen and the warmth of their hands, carefully creating this masterpiece, is not only the continuity of the old traditions. This is the very poetic, subtle and sincere soul of the Uzbek people.
Uzbek suzani products for sale can become an excellent and useful souvenir in the house that will remind you of an unforgettable trip to sunny and hospitable Uzbekistan.