Uzbek gold embroidery
Gold embroidery art of Uzbekistan
The art of gold embroidery, zardozi, has been existing on the territory of Uzbekistan since ancient times. This is evidenced by well-known murals of Balalyktepa, Varakhshi, Afrosiab (VI-VII centuries), depicting people in gold-weave clothes.
The Spanish ambassador at the court of Amir Temur in 1403-1406, Rui Gonzalez de Clavijo mentions in his diary about silk, embroidered with gold garments of Amir Temur's wife - Sarai-Mulk-khanum (Bibi-khanim).
The ancient traditions of Uzbek gold weaving were preserved until the end of the 19th century. Bukhara craftswomen created a style that has only inherent features, compositional solutions, ornamental motifs and techniques.
The epithet "golden" repeatedly sounds in poems of poets who sang of Bukhara. And, probably, considerable merit in this is the golden sewing, which the inhabitants of the city have long decorated their life, the brilliance and beauty of which amazed imagination.
In later times, historical sources testify to the high development of gold weaving in Samarkand and Herat. But gradually this solar occupation was concentrated in Bukhara. Here, Uzbek gold embroidery received the right of official court art.
The first mention of Bukhara embroidery is found in the book of the historian of the 10th century Narshakhi "History of Bukhara". Unfortunately, ancient samples of embroidery have not reached our days. About it, we can judge only from museum samples not earlier than the XIX century.
Gold embroidery decorated ceremonial clothes, hats, shoes, accessories horse outings. It is interesting that the gold weaving craft in Uzbekistan was exclusively male. Mastery was passed from father to son.
In the XX century the Uzbek gold embroidery art spreads outside of Bukhara. Embroidery products are produced in Samarkand, Urgut, Tashkent, Gijduvan and other cities. The sophistication of the patterns, the subtlety of work and the fantastic craftsmanship of gold embroidery brought it world fame. Now this industry is mostly women. Like many years ago, they embroider by hand in oriental lush things. And whether it's a skullcap or a wall panel, shoes or a robe - everything is a true work of art.
Of particular interest are the Bukhara ceremonial gold embroidery gowns - zarchopon, which amaze with lush decorativeness and ornamental variety. Earlier Bukhara emirs and palace nobility used to wear such gowns. There were also so-called gift gowns, which were included in the list of embassy gifts or were presented to the subjects of the emir as a token of mercy. Today, in Uzbekistan gold embroidered man's gowns have become an obligatory part of the bridegroom's wedding dress, they are also worn in other especially solemn occasions; they are given to honorable guests.
The main zardozi embroidery materials with which the masters work are the metal threads kalebatun, which are a very narrow and thin strip of gilded metal or a thin silver flattened wire, sometimes covered with gilding, tightly wound on a silk or paper thread. In addition to metallic threads, colored twisted or untwisted silk is used, applications of velvet and silk, relief rosettes of a cube or a cube olmasi, made of gold threads and imitating gold ornaments.
Embroidery is applied to velvet dark tones of cherry, blue, purple, crimson. The soft depth of velvet enhances the decorative effect of gold embroidery. The texture of the material, the embroidery technique, the construction of the ornament, its decorative and color solution are interrelated, complement each other, create a single harmonious image.
Main techniques gold weaving in Uzbekistan
Many generations of craftsmen have developed and perfected a peculiar technique of gold sewing. Two main methods of sewing are used: zarduzi-zaminduzi (solid) and zarduzi-gulduzi (floral).
When using the technique of zarduzi zaminduzi, the background is completely sewn with gilded silver, the golden thread is superimposed on the flooring from thin cords.
The Uzbek zarduzi-gulduzi technique was developed in the early XX century. Elements of the pattern are cut out of thick paper, cardboard, less often - leather, are superimposed on a fabric that is tightly stretched on the fingers, fixed and covered with gold or silver thread. Sketchs are created by specialists-draftsmen “tarhkash”. They draw the elements of the pattern on paper, transfer them to the cardboard with the help of pounce and cut out with special scissors. Then, elements of the composition are superimposed on the cloth and transferred to the embroiderer.
Main designs of Uzbek gold embroidery
There are three main types of composition in gold embroidery art of Uzbekistan. They are daukur, butador and darham.
In the composition of daukur the basis for decoration is ornamented with gold-embroidered border kur.
Butador differs by sewing the entire central field with individual bushes or other patterns at some distance from each other.
In the composition of darham the ornament of the central field is a continuous pattern. Its contours are trimmed with the technique of takhrir - framing with a thin cord of gold twisted threads, or kobuli (Kabul sewing) - with threads in the form of small round loops connected together.
Zardozi embroidery motifs
The patterns of gold embroidery products and Uzbek zardozi suites are very diverse. Vegetable forms and motifs are composed of flowers, stems, leaves, fruits - curving, swirling in a measured rhythm. Irises, carnations, tulips, delicate apple blossoms, pomegranate, cherry, almond and pepper ... All this is a stylized abundance, semantic symbolism.
For example, in Uzbekistan irises in ornamental zardozi motifs of embroidery symbolize peace and long life, wavy stalk of bindweed - wealth and vitality; buds and leaves express the idea of fertility and the spring revival of nature. For fruitfulness "responds" almond-shaped motif bodom. Its more delicate and elongated forms, playing the role of a kind of amulet, are called kalampir (capsicum). Wavy and trickle patterns represent flows of life-giving water.
Less commonly geometric ornament in the form of circles, rhombuses, broken lines is used.
With a great artistic taste, calligraphic inscriptions of religious character are executed in Uzbek gold embroidery. They are placed in the rim of individual compositions.
Bukhara gold embroidery skullcaps are especially popular among tourists. To produce them, only smooth velvet of different colors is used (purple, green, blue, black). When embroidering, Bukhara embroiderers use mainly plant motifs: bodom (almonds), turunj (wild orange), rosettes, palmettes - and geometric motifs: circles, rhombuses and the like. There are also epigraphic inscriptions. Special delicacy of the Bukhara embroidery is given by subtle color combinations of blue, gray and crimson.
Modern Uzbek art of gold embroidery inherited a huge stock of ornamental motifs, differing in their multi variance and bright decorative qualities.
Now, gold embroidery products in large volumes are produced in Uzbekistan by the Bukhara gold embroidery factory. Large-scale orders are also being carried out here. In addition, in Bukhara and in the Bukhara region, many private craftsmen perform both general and individual orders. Embroidered with gold Uzbek gown or skullcap can be an excellent gift from Uzbekistan to your relatives and friends! Do not deny your loved ones in such a pleasure and book tour packages in Uzbekistan.