Geography of Uzbekistan
Geography of Uzbekistan: general concepts
Geographically, Uzbekistan is located at about the same latitude as the Mediterranean states, such as Spain, Italy, and Greece. However, the weather conditions of Uzbekistan are significantly different from the conditions of these subtropical states. This is explained by the fact that the territory of Uzbek republic is considerably removed from warm oceans and seas, as it is located inside the Eurasian continent. From the south, high mountains prevent the penetration of moist and warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, but the way to the cold air flows is open from the north. In this regard, Uzbekistan has a special climate peculiar to the desert (summer is cloudless, with lots of sunny days, arid, hot, and winter is relatively cold).
Most of the border of Uzbekistan passes along the plains, comparatively less - along the adyrs and mountains. Our country borders on 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. The whole length of the state frontiers is 6221 km.
Uzbekistan nature and geography
Geography of Uzbekistan is mainly represented by deserts and mountains, and, in some areas - by valleys and lowlands.
Approximately 80% of Uzbekistan is presented by a desert, namely, the Kyzylkum desert.
Mountains of the country are the foothills and lower mountains of the Tien-Shan system.
The highest point of Uzbekistan is the Mount Adelunga (4 301 meters).
Geographically the land of Uzbekistan is 448.9 thousand sq. km. In Central Asia in size of the territory, Uzbekistan is inferior to Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, but at the same time it occupies a large area compared to such European countries as Great Britain (2 times), Denmark (4 times), Switzerland (10 times) and Belgium (14 times).
However, despite its long form, the time of Uzbekistan is not scattered over several time zones. And it is +5 hours to Greenwich. And this is very convenient.
Uzbekistan has quite rich climatic, land, water and some other natural resources, as well as a number of minerals.
Uzbekistan geography: relief and inland waters
On the territory of Uzbekistan there are also deserted plains, among which the extensive desert of Kyzylkum stands out. There are mountains with high-zonal landscapes, low elevations, and inland waters. The complexity of the terrain, the features of latitudinal and high-altitude location provide a significant diversity of the landscape appearance of the territory.
In general, Uzbekistan nature and geography has experienced a strong impact of human activity, and the share of cultural and transformed landscapes in Uzbekistan is particularly high.
The territory of diluvial Uzbekistan arose as a result of Paleozoic mountain formation (about 300 million years ago). It was then when the Turan plate and the land formed. Later for a long time this plate had been covered by the sea. Mountain systems were finally forming a phase of alpine orogenesis; the products of the destruction of the uplifting mountains were carried to the plains and layered over the marine deposits. The growth of the mountains contributed to the drought of the climate, and gradually huge deserts appeared. Wandering rivers and winds repeatedly deposited the superfluous loose strata. So the sands of the Karakum and Kyzylkum were formed. The water content of the rivers and the moistening of the territory also changed.
Only in places where the Paleozoic foundation appears above the late deposits (for example, in the Kyzylkum) the island mountains arose. Only the Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai became really high mountains.
Each major natural region of the Republic is distinguished by its combination of relief forms.
Uzbekistan lies in the Aral Sea basin. The area, occupied by rivers and lakes is 4.92%.
Total water resources are 50-60 cubic km. per year. Only 12.2 cubic km. are formed on the land, and the actual volume of water comes from outside - from the mountains. Therefore, the maximum flow of water in the rivers comes at the hottest time.
Flats in Uzbekistan do not participate in the creation of surface runoff, but they actively consume it. Here, the water coming from the mountains is being intensively disassembled for irrigation..
The nature of Uzbekistan geographically
The location of Uzbekistan in such a contradictory geographical environment served the fact that, going about the country, you can catch yourself thinking that you, while on the territory of one state, have visited several countries at once. So, for example, the western areas are more deserted, and are represented mainly by plains. And this makes Uzbekistan tours quite convenient and attractive. However, gradually approaching the eastern regions of the country, it becomes apparent how the landscape becomes more mountainous and sublime, and all this is crowned with snowy peaks of the Tien Shan.
The Ferghana Valley can be counted the locality with the most optimal climatic conditions in Uzbekistan. It stretches between the north-eastern and south-eastern mountain ranges. Here the agricultural industry is developing, which allows the locals to conduct trades at internal and external markets.